IT in het onderwijs: zeker ook voor leerkrachten!

Jan_van_DrielNatuurlijk bent u als school(bestuur) hard aan het werk om IT zo goed mogelijk in uw organisatie in te zetten. U kijkt (of heeft al gezien) dat het onderwijsproces er mee kan worden ondersteund en de kwaliteit van het onderwijs er beter door wordt. In veel gevallen zien wij dat IT in de klas wordt benaderd vanuit het perspectief van de leerling. Maar heeft u IT al eens bekeken vanuit het perspectief van de leerkracht (of zo u wilt de docent)?

Het lijkt er namelijk steeds meer op (zie o.a. ‘How the Worlds Most Improved School Systems Keep Getting Better’, McKinsey & Company 2010 en ‘Visible Learning; a synthesis of over 800 meta-analyses relating to achievement’, Hattie 2009) dat de leerkracht een belangrijke zo niet essentiële factor is bij de verbetering van de kwaliteit van onderwijs. In Finland, waar het onderwijs bij de top van de wereld hoort, lijkt dit ook te werken. De successen worden er onder meer maar niet uitsluitend toegeschreven aan het niveau van de leerkrachten (alleen de beste studenten mogen voor de klas) en de professionele autonomie van de leerkrachten binnen de door de school gefaciliteerde omgeving. Maar wat (en dat is naar mijn mening sneller in ons land toe te passen) ook opvalt is dat leerkrachten in Finland van elkaar (willen) leren.

Dat kan bijvoorbeeld door (letterlijk) bij elkaar in de klas te gaan zitten, elkaar te beoordelen (peer review), door kennis te delen en door samen te werken aan lesprogramma’s en (digitaal) materiaal.

IT kan en moet dan ook voorzien in een dergelijke samenwerkingsomgeving die de samenwerking tussen leerkrachten faciliteert!

2 thoughts on “IT in het onderwijs: zeker ook voor leerkrachten!

  1. RaF Feys zegt:

    Spectaculaire daling van leerprestaties in Finland sinds 2001 & debat over (nefaste) gevolgen van comprehensieve, lagere cyclus s.o. in Finland, Zweden … Onze beleidsmakers, Klasse van september 2013, stellen (comprehensief) Finland steeds voor als een onderwijsparadijs inzake hoge leerresultaten en sociale gelijkheid. Volgens Finse onderzoekers van de universiteit van Helsinki was dit de voorbije jaren geenszins het geval. Dit bevestigt wat Onderwijskrant al een aantal jaren beweert -mede op basis van eerdere studies van de universiteit van Helsinki.
    New study: Finnish students’ achievement declined significantly (Onderzoek van universiteit Helsinki).
    Since 1996, educational effectiveness has been understood in Finland to include not only subject specific knowledge and skills but also the more general competences which are not the exclusive domain of any single subject but develop through good teaching along a student’s educational career. Many of these, including the object of the present assessment, learning to learn, have been named in the education policy documents of the European Union as key competences which each member state should provide their citizens as part of general education (EU 2006).
    In spring 2012, the Helsinki University Centre for Educational Assessment implemented a nationally representative assessment of ninth grade students’ learning to learn competence. The assessment was inspired by signs of declining results in the past few years’ assessments. This decline had been observed both in the subject specific assessments of the Finnish National Board of Education, in the OECD PISA 2009 study, and in the learning to learn assessment implemented by the Centre for Educational Assessment in all comprehensive schools in Vantaa in 2010.
    The results of the Vantaa study could be compared against the results of a similar assessment implemented in 2004. As the decline in students’ cognitive competence and in their learning related attitudes was especially strong in the two Vantaa studies, with only 6 years apart, a decision was made to direct the national assessment of spring 2012 to the same schools which had participated in a respective study in 2001.
    The goal of the assessment was to find out whether the decline in results, observed in the Helsinki region, were the same for the whole country. The assessment also offered a possibility to look at the readiness of schools to implement a computer-based assessment, and how this has changed during the 11 years between the two assessments. After all, the 2001 assessment was the first in Finland where large scale student assessment data was collected in schools using the Internet.
    The main focus of the assessment was on students’ competence and their learning-related attitudes at the end of the comprehensive school education, but the assessment also relates to educational equity: to regional, between-school, and between- class differences and to the relation of students’ gender and home background to their competence and attitudes.
    The assessment reached about 7 800 ninth grade students in 82 schools in 65 municipalities. Of the students, 49% were girls and 51% boys. The share of students in Swedish speaking schools was 3.4%. As in 2001, the assessment was implemented in about half of the schools using a printed test booklet and in the other half via the Internet. The results of the 2001 and 2012 assessments were uniformed through IRT modelling to secure the comparability of the results. Hence, the results can be interpreted to represent the full Finnish ninth grade population.
    Girls performed better than boys in all three fields of competence measured in the assessment: reasoning, mathematical thinking, and reading comprehension. The difference was especially noticeable in reading comprehension even if in this task girls’ attainment had declined more than boys’ attainment. Differences between the AVI-districts were small. The impact of students’ home-background was, instead, obvious: the higher the education of the parents, the better the student performed in the assessment tasks. There was no difference in the impact of mother’s education on boys’ and girls’ attainment. The between-school-differences were very small (explaining under 2% of the variance) while the between-class differences were relatively large (9 % – 20 %).
    The change between the year 2001 and year 2012 is significant. The level of students’ attainment has declined considerably. The difference can be compared to a decline of Finnish students’ attainment in PISA reading literacy from the 539 points of PISA 2009 to 490 points, to below the OECD average. The mean level of students’ learning-supporting attitudes still falls above the mean of the scale used in the questions but also that mean has declined from 2001.
    The mean level of attitudes detrimental to learning has risen but the rise is more modest. Girls’ attainment has declined more than boys’ in three of the five tasks. There was no gender difference in the change of students’ attitudes, however. Between-school differences were un-changed but differences between classes and between individual students had grown. The change in attitudes—unlike the change in attainment—was related to students’ home background: The decline in learning-supporting attitudes and the growth in attitudes detrimental to school work were weaker the better educated the mother. Home background was not related to the change in students’ attainment, however. A decline could be discerned both among the best and the weakest students.
    The results of the assessment point to a deeper, on-going cultural change which seems to affect the young generation especially hard. Formal education seems to be losing its former power and the accepting of the societal expectations which the school represents seems to be related more strongly than before to students’ home background. The school has to compete with students’ self-elected pastime activities, the social media, and the boundless world of information and entertainment open to all through the Internet. The school is to a growing number of youngpeople just one, often critically reviewed, developmental environment among many.
    The change is not a surprise, however. A similar decline in student attainment has been registered in the other Nordic countries already earlier. It is time to concede that the signals of change have been discernible already for a while and to open up a national discussion regarding the state and future of the Finnish comprehensive school that rose to international acclaim due to our students’success in the PISA studies.
    Source:
    University of Helsinki – Faculty of Behavioral Sciences, Department of Teacher of Education Research Report No 347Authors: Jarkko Hautamäki, Sirkku Kupiainen, Jukka Marjanen, Mari-Pauliina Vainikainen and Risto Hotulainen
    Learning to learn at the end of basic education: Results in 2012 and changes from 2001

  2. Ronald Vroom zegt:

    Dag Raf,

    Fijn dat onze artikelen ook in België worden gelezen! Ik ken de details van het onderzoek niet, maar op basis van wat ik lees is het mij niet duidelijk welke factoren exact de daling van leerprestaties veroorzaken. Ik zie dan ook vooralsnog geen reden om te veronderstellen dat leerkrachten die met en van elkaar leren de kwaliteit van het onderwijs niet zouden verhogen.

    Met vriendelijke groet,

    Ronald Vroom

Geef een reactie

Het e-mailadres wordt niet gepubliceerd. Vereiste velden zijn gemarkeerd met *